Publications

Publications

How do campaigns and law enforcement actors address demand in human trafficking? In this video, Albert Kraler (ICMPD), Dita Vogel (University of Bremen) and Suzanne Hoff (La Strada International) present their findings to these questions and provide recommendations on policy interventions addressing the demand in trafficking.

 

 

How is the concept of demand used in anti-trafficking debates? How useful is demand in developing anti-trafficking measures? Why is it important to have a clear concept of demand?
In this video, Albert Kraler (ICMPD), Dita Vogel (University of Bremen) and Suzanne Hoff (La Strada International) provide answers to these questions and explain the usefulness and limitations of the concept.

 

 

Demand and demand-reduction have become catchwords in the anti-trafficking debates. Although at the level of these debates demand is predominantly understood in an economic sense – the willingness and ability to purchase – in anti-trafficking practice the concept is not consistently used. The DemandAT project set out to clarify the meaning and relevance of demand in the anti-trafficking field, as well as to contribute to a better formulation of demand-side policies in this area. The research involved a range of complementary sub-studies, including in-depth case studies on demand-side approaches in the context of trafficking in domestic work, globalised production of goods and prostitution. In addition, two further in-depth studies examined specific types of interventions addressing human trafficking – law enforcement and communication campaigns. The studies yield a series of new insights for the usage and relevance of demand in addressing trafficking.

As bodies tasked to monitor labour conditions and compliance with labour standards and to enforce the relevant labour, social security and other laws, labour inspection services – in principle – have an important role in addressing trafficking for labour exploitation. However, addressing trafficking for labour exploitation, or labour exploitation more widely, is not necessarily a core part of their mandate. In addition, monitoring is constrained by their limited resources and the continuous expansion of labour inspectorates’ mandates and tasks.

This DemandAT Working Paper No. 15 by ICMPD researchers Mădălina Rogoz and Albert Kraler offers a synthesis of the main results of the conceptual and theoretical work as well as of the in-depth case studies conducted in the framework of the project (prostitution policies, domestic work, supply chain initiatives, law enforcement and information campaigns). The paper argues for a narrow conception of demand and suggests to understand demand-side interventions as interventions aimed at shaping the purchaser side in a specific market exchange. Demand-side interventions are thus specific and don’t work in isolation from other measures addressing trafficking. In some contexts, the paper finds, demand is not a useful category altogether. The paper further highlights the need to acknowledge the specificity of particular markets and the related need to specify the expected results of demand-side interventions in any particular market.

This DemandAT Working Paper No.14 by Dita Vogel (University of Bremen) and Albert Kraler (ICMPD) proposes an integrated theoretical approach to conceptualise human behaviour in the context of trafficking in human beings. The authors argue that the emphasis on agency in current much social science literature stands in stark contrast to political and academic debates about THB, in which victims are imagined without any agency and exploiters as powerful and driven by greed. This paper challenges this view and suggests a model of human behaviour that can be applied to both victims and perpetrators as well as third parties. Drawing on the social psychological concept of “possibility space” the authors argue that individuals’ actions are shaped by what they perceive as possible and desirable actions in particular circumstances. A key aspect of addressing trafficking is therefore to make alternative routes of actions possible. 

This DemandAT Working Paper No. 13 written by ICMPD researcher Mădălina Rogoz with contributions from other colleagues from the DemandAT consortium critically examines debates on demand in the context of trafficking. A common denominator of these debates is that there is the assumption that there is “a” demand that fosters exploitation related to trafficking in human beings. The paper aims to retrace the arguments used in debates on demand in different fields of trafficking –  for sexual exploitation, for labour exploitation, for the exploitation of begging, for illegal adoption, for forced and servile marriages and trafficking for the removal of organs – in order to better understand the assumptions behind demand-side arguments, the way demand is understood and contextualised and how it is considered relevant in addressing various types of trafficking in human beings.

This DemandAT Working Paper No. 12 by ICMPD researcher Almut Bachinger and other colleagues in the DemandAT consortium stresses the principle importance of labour inspections in monitoring and addressing labour exploitation, while highlighting that mandates, institutional fragmentation and lack of resources do not necessarily allow to realize labour inspectorate’s potential in addressing exploitation.  In addition, the paper stresses the importance of the overall regulatory environment. An associated policy brief available here summarises key findings of the research and its policy recommendations.

Concerns around trafficking, forced labour and slavery (TFLS) have grown in recent years, with increasing attention being paid to TFLS within businesses' supply chains. In response, a diverse range of initiatives have been launched to address the TFLS-supply chain nexus. Seeking to map and understand this emerging field of intervention, Siobhan McGrath and Fabiola Mieres have recently completed a project documenting and analysing these initiatives as part of the DemandAT project on 'demand side measures against trafficking'.

In this video four principles for addressing TFLS in and through supply chains are recommended: 1) It is time to go ‘beyond compliance’ to responsibility for ethical supply chains; 2) Initiatives need to be enforceable and have significant consequences; 3) Genuine worker participation is critical; 4) Public regulation to protect workers’ and migrants’ rights and labour standards is crucial.

The security sector approach to criminal justice is integrated into legal framework and strategies, which guide their activities and enable the security sector to carry out functions related to areas such as apprehension, investigation, confiscation and conviction. Yet, as this working paper finds a clear definition of the term ‘demand’ and demand-side measures is lacking in the security sector’s legal frameworks, mandates and strategies. As security sector role is very much tied to its governing legislation, the security sector therefore seems unable to act proactively in ‘addressing demand’ without a clear definition of the demand-side. It is therefore suggested that for this sector not only is a definition needed, but also a legal framework for action.

European Policy Brief based on this research is also available.

In this blog, Marjan Wijers comments on the DemandAT policy brief on the prevention of exploitation and trafficking in the sex work sector drawing on her own experience of the drafting of Article 9(5) of the UN Trafficking Protocol which she participated in as a member of the Human Rights Caucus. Discussing the origins of the demand-provision in the Protocol, she pleads for a research that offers policy makers analytical tools and data that can help clarifying debates on demand-side measures, while pleading for a return to a universal human rights approach in designing prostitution policies and legislation.

The security sector approach to criminal justice is integrated into legal framework and strategies, which guide their activities and enable the security sector to carry out functions related to areas such as apprehension, investigation, confiscation and conviction. Yet, as this policy brief finds a clear definition of the term ‘demand’ and demand-side measures is lacking in the security sector’s legal frameworks, mandates and strategies. As security sector role is very much tied to its governing legislation, the security sector therefore seems unable to act proactively in ‘addressing demand’ without a clear definition of the demand-side. It is therefore suggested that for this sector not only is a definition needed, but also a legal framework for action.

For further information, please consult the related DemandAT working paper.

Demand-side campaigns seek to reduce trafficking in human beings by influencing patterns of the spending of money for goods and services, and by encouraging the reporting of suspicious occurrences to the police or NGOs. Although considerable funds are devoted to such campaigns, little is known about their impact. Campaign evaluation is strikingly lacking. In a policy brief summarising key insights from research on demand-side campaigns conducted  in the framework of the DemandAT project, Dita Vogel and Norbert Cyrus from the University of Bremen argue that better evaluation is possible and propose concrete steps that can be taken to make campaigns more easily evaluable.

This policy brief recognises that prostitution policy regimes can be identified as repressive, restrictive and integrative, or a combination of these (see further the related DemandAT working paper). It therefore recommends a policy approach that is context-sensitive, suggesting measures against violence, exploitation, and trafficking that can be implemented in each type of regime. The main strategies for preventing exploitation are those that can reduce sex workers’ vulnerability, limit opportunities for exploitation, and build alliances between sex workers, NGOs, and authorities. The brief also recommends a collaborative form of governance that has proven successful when developing innovative policy measures in other politically sensitive domains.

This tenth DemandAT working paper by Petra Östergren fom Lund University develops a typology for prostitution policy regimes. Based on an inductive methodological approach, it presents a typology of three general prostitution policy models (or regimes), as repressive, restrictive or integrative. The intention of such a tripartite typology is that it can serve as a tool for assessing, evaluating and comparing prostitution policies, even in cases where they seem to contain contradictory or incoherent elements. Besides using the prostitution policy typology for analytical purposes, it can also serve as a tool for developing context-sensitive measures against violence, exploitation and trafficking in human beings in the sex work sector.

This report gathers the experience and presents the emerging results of research conducted by academics at Durham University’s Geography Department on ‘Globalised Production of Goods,’ their contribution to thet DemandAT project. Data collection and preliminary analysis were carried out by Fabiola Mieres, PhD during the period November 2014-November 2016 and supervised by Siobhán McGrath, PhD. The overall aim of the research is to analyse existing and proposed initiatives to address trafficking, forced labour and/or (contemporary) slavery (which we term TFLS) in supply chains. The report is structured around the two key forms of data collection we conducted: first, the identification and mapping of 97 initiatives in the nascent field of governance over TFLS in and through supply chains (the TFLS-supply chain nexus). The dataset shows the variegated forms that this governance takes.

Concerns around trafficking, forced labour and slavery (TFLS) have grown in recent years, with increasing attention being paid to TFLS within businesses' supply chains. In response, a diverse range of initiatives have been launched to address the TFLS-supply chain nexus.  Seeking to map and understand this emerging field of intervention, Fabiola Mieres and Siobhan McGrath have recently completed a project documenting and analysing these initiatives as part the DemandAT project on 'demand side measures against trafficking'. The research involved extensive desk-based identification and analysis of 97 initiatives at the TFLS-supply chain nexus. Fieldwork in Qatar, the US and Malaysia then explored selected initiatives in further depth. The project benefited from the involvement of a stakeholder advisory board representing organizations based in Brazil, Jordan, Ghana, India, Switzerland and the US.

What can we know about the effectiveness of demand-side campaigns?  Although considerable funds are spent on anti-trafficking campaigns seeking to influence spending patterns or to encourage reporting, little is known about their effectiveness. This is mainly due to insufficient evaluation, yet examples of critical internal evaluation show that evaluative insights are possible.
 

How To Design Evaluable Anti-Trafficking Campaigns: Six Basic Steps

By Nobert Cyrus and Dita Vogel

University of Bremen

DemandAT research on campaigns found a surprising lack of evaluation of the impact of demand-side campaigns. Stressing the need to learn more about the impact of the campiagns we conduct when tackling human trafficking the project has designed this manual. It is intended as a tool to support actors in the field when designing campaigns.

This eight DemandAT working paper presents the first piece of data collection and analysis from DemandAT work on the ‘Globalised Production of Goods’. The paper offers a preliminary analysis of an inventory of initiatives around human trafficking and supply chains. We first consider how demand may be understood in the context of supply chains in relation to concerns around trafficking, forced labour and/or slavery (TFLS). We further begin to map the field of interventions at the TFLS-supply chain nexus. We analyse the range of actors involved, the forms that the initiatives take in terms of the mechanisms by which they would operate, and the scope of initiatives both in terms of industry and geography. The field of initiatives at the TFLS-supply chain nexus is seen to be growing quickly, and exhibits a high degree of variegation.

Alexandra Ricard-Guay

This seventh DemandAT working paper examines the demand-side of trafficking in the domestic work sector based on seven country studies (Belgium, Cyprus, France, Greece, Italy, the Netherlands, and the UK). The report i) provides an overview of the phenomenon of trafficking in domestic work, ii) examines the factors influencing the demand in the context of trafficking, and iii) discusses key challenges in responding to and tackling this issue

Published in Psychosociological Issues in Human Resource Management this article is a re-working of DemandAT Working Paper 3This article rehearses economic understandings of demand and the key terms to which it relates: supply, price and market. A qualitative content analysis approach is used to develop a greater understanding of the ways in which the idea of demand (and related concepts) are deployed in discussions of trafficking as related to migration, prostitution and labor policy. The analysis reveals terminological ambiguities in the way the term 'demand' is currently used in anti-trafficking debates that hamper progress in generating understanding of the mechanisms that lead to criminal forms of exploitation.

DemandAT – Domestic Work Case Study

Looking into trafficking in domestic work: the demand-side

 

 

(accompanying Policy Brief)

 

Notwithstanding significant demand for domestic workers in Europe, sub-standard conditions and informal work-arrangement persist. Despite various national contexts and policies, this labour sector mostly composed of migrant women still face vulnerability to abuses, exploitation, as well as trafficking. Informal work arrangement still prevails.

 

A new study on trafficking in domestic work brings visibility and new data on this under-researched and hidden phenomenon happening in Europe.

 

DemandAT – Domestic Work Case Study

Looking into trafficking in domestic work: the demand-side

 

(accompanying Policy Brief)

 

Notwithstanding significant demand for domestic workers in Europe, sub-standard conditions and informal work-arrangement persist. Despite various national contexts and policies, this labour sector mostly composed of migrant women still face vulnerability to abuses, exploitation, as well as trafficking. Informal work arrangement still prevails.

 

A new study on trafficking in domestic work brings visibility and new data on this under-researched and hidden phenomenon happening in Europe.

 

DemandAT – Domestic Work Case Study

Looking into trafficking in domestic work: the demand-side

 

(accompanying Policy Brief)

 

Notwithstanding significant demand for domestic workers in Europe, sub-standard conditions and informal work-arrangement persist. Despite various national contexts and policies, this labour sector mostly composed of migrant women still face vulnerability to abuses, exploitation, as well as trafficking. Informal work arrangement still prevails.

 

A new study on trafficking in domestic work brings visibility and new data on this under-researched and hidden phenomenon happening in Europe.

 

DemandAT – Domestic Work Case Study

Looking into trafficking in domestic work: the demand-side

 

(accompanying Policy Brief)

 

Notwithstanding significant demand for domestic workers in Europe, sub-standard conditions and informal work-arrangement persist. Despite various national contexts and policies, this labour sector mostly composed of migrant women still face vulnerability to abuses, exploitation, as well as trafficking. Informal work arrangement still prevails.

 

A new study on trafficking in domestic work brings visibility and new data on this under-researched and hidden phenomenon happening in Europe.

 

DemandAT – Domestic Work Case Study

Looking into trafficking in domestic work: the demand-side

 

(accompanying Policy Brief)

 

Notwithstanding significant demand for domestic workers in Europe, sub-standard conditions and informal work-arrangement persist. Despite various national contexts and policies, this labour sector mostly composed of migrant women still face vulnerability to abuses, exploitation, as well as trafficking. Informal work arrangement still prevails.

 

A new study on trafficking in domestic work brings visibility and new data on this under-researched and hidden phenomenon happening in Europe.

 

DemandAT – Domestic Work Case Study

Looking into trafficking in domestic work: the demand-side

 

(accompanying Policy Brief)

 

Notwithstanding significant demand for domestic workers in Europe, sub-standard conditions and informal work-arrangement persist. Despite various national contexts and policies, this labour sector mostly composed of migrant women still face vulnerability to abuses, exploitation, as well as trafficking. Informal work arrangement still prevails.

 

A new study on trafficking in domestic work brings visibility and new data on this under-researched and hidden phenomenon happening in Europe.

 

DemandAT – Domestic Work Case Study

Looking into trafficking in domestic work: the demand-side

 

(accompanying Policy Brief)

 

Notwithstanding significant demand for domestic workers in Europe, sub-standard conditions and informal work-arrangement persist. Despite various national contexts and policies, this labour sector mostly composed of migrant women still face vulnerability to abuses, exploitation, as well as trafficking. Informal work arrangement still prevails.

 

A new study on trafficking in domestic work brings visibility and new data on this under-researched and hidden phenomenon happening in Europe.

 

Demand-side approaches are seen as important building blocks in efforts to prevent trafficking, complementing measures addressing the vulnerability of trafficked persons. Whether such demand-side policies actually succeed in preventing trafficking is both debated and not sufficiently investigated. The sixth DemandAT Working Paper describes recurring types of regulatory tools addressing demand in twelve national contexts. The paper finds that there are few policies specifically addressing demand in the context of trafficking in human beings. More commonly, policies address broader issues associated with trafficking, and thus may serve to address, but are not limited to trafficking. Structurally, the promotion of demand-side approaches has the potential to mainstream anti-trafficking policies across various policy areas.

Domestic work is a sector of the economy particularly vulnerable to abusive and exploitative practices and is an area thought to be at high risk of hidden trafficking in human beings. Yet trafficking in domestic work remains poorly defined and the multiple drivers of demand in this context are difficult to differentiate.  This fifth DemandAT working paper aims to provide a framework for research that captures some of the specificities of work in a domestic setting. This will provide common ground for the series of country studies that are to follow.

What can we learn from other policy sectors about how best to regulate demand for illegal or undesirable goods/services? Drawing on insights from the areas of illegal drugs, tobacco and employment, Working Paper 4 uses a typology of regulatory approaches to identify types of smart regulation that might be most pertinent to measures addressing demand related to trafficking.

The authors note the challenges of transferring policy solutions and critique the rationalist presuppositions underpinning the literature on regulation. In particular, the paper shows how issue framing shapes policy responses. This, in turn, poses the question as to how issue definition and framing might act as a constraint on developing new approaches to address demand in THB.

Working Paper 3 examines how economic contributions can help clarify some of the terminology used in the DemandAT project. It sets out economic theories of ‘demand’, and contrasts these to common understandings of the concept of demand and prices as employed in debates on anti-trafficking, as well as understandings of the role of coercion. The paper suggests that the use of these terms has often been vague and inconsistent. The paper illustrates these problems by looking at three examples of the application of economics concepts in literature on THB. It concludes that what is needed most urgently is more context dependent data interpretation, rather than more data.

 

The 2000 UN Trafficking Protocol obliged states to discourage demand that fostered exploitation leading to trafficking. Fifteen years later, there is still no shared understanding of what demand means in the context of debates on trafficking in human beings (THB).

Working paper 2 charts the history of the use of the concepts “trafficking” and “demand” in the context of debates on trafficking since the 1860s. It shows that terminological confusion was and still is a constant feature of these debates. The paper argues that conceptual confusion hampers mutual understanding, prevents reasonable dispute and undermines the capacity to develop policy approaches which effectively provide protection from trafficking and exploitation.

This first DemandAT working paper by Norbert Cyrus and Dita Vogel seeks to clarify the concept of demand in the context of trafficking in human beings.  It approaches this task by historically analysing the emergence of the concept of demand within legal frameworks related to trafficking. The paper also discusses the understanding of demand as a concept in economics and whether and how this can be applied to trafficking in human beings. 

Working Paper 1 makes recommendations on terminology for the DemandAT project including:

  • the definition of demand as 'the willingness and ability to buy a particular commodity'

  • the definition of demand-side policies and measures as reserved for activities that seek to influence the demand for final commodities (such as consumer goods and services)

Addressing Demand in Anti-Trafficking Efforts and Policies, a 10-page summary of the DemandAT project

Trafficking in human beings covers various forms of coercion and exploitation of women, men and children. While responses to trafficking have traditionally focused on combating the criminal networks involved in trafficking or protecting the human rights of victims,European countries are increasingly exploring ways of influencing demand for the services or products involving the use of trafficked persons as well as the demand for trafficked persons as such. Demand-side measures have the potential to address some of the root causes of trafficking, and thus to contribute to its prevention. Analytically, a demand-side analysis has the potential to re-centre attention to those benefitting, and therefore bearing a degree of responsibility for, trafficking.