Publications

Publications

Alexandra Ricard-Guay

This seventh DemandAT working paper examines the demand-side of trafficking in the domestic work sector based on seven country studies (Belgium, Cyprus, France, Greece, Italy, the Netherlands, and the UK). The report i) provides an overview of the phenomenon of trafficking in domestic work, ii) examines the factors influencing the demand in the context of trafficking, and iii) discusses key challenges in responding to and tackling this issue

Published in Psychosociological Issues in Human Resource Management this article is a re-working of DemandAT Working Paper 3This article rehearses economic understandings of demand and the key terms to which it relates: supply, price and market. A qualitative content analysis approach is used to develop a greater understanding of the ways in which the idea of demand (and related concepts) are deployed in discussions of trafficking as related to migration, prostitution and labor policy. The analysis reveals terminological ambiguities in the way the term 'demand' is currently used in anti-trafficking debates that hamper progress in generating understanding of the mechanisms that lead to criminal forms of exploitation.

DemandAT – Domestic Work Case Study

Looking into trafficking in domestic work: the demand-side

 

 

(accompanying Policy Brief)

 

Notwithstanding significant demand for domestic workers in Europe, sub-standard conditions and informal work-arrangement persist. Despite various national contexts and policies, this labour sector mostly composed of migrant women still face vulnerability to abuses, exploitation, as well as trafficking. Informal work arrangement still prevails.

 

A new study on trafficking in domestic work brings visibility and new data on this under-researched and hidden phenomenon happening in Europe.

 

DemandAT – Domestic Work Case Study

Looking into trafficking in domestic work: the demand-side

 

(accompanying Policy Brief)

 

Notwithstanding significant demand for domestic workers in Europe, sub-standard conditions and informal work-arrangement persist. Despite various national contexts and policies, this labour sector mostly composed of migrant women still face vulnerability to abuses, exploitation, as well as trafficking. Informal work arrangement still prevails.

 

A new study on trafficking in domestic work brings visibility and new data on this under-researched and hidden phenomenon happening in Europe.

 

DemandAT – Domestic Work Case Study

Looking into trafficking in domestic work: the demand-side

 

(accompanying Policy Brief)

 

Notwithstanding significant demand for domestic workers in Europe, sub-standard conditions and informal work-arrangement persist. Despite various national contexts and policies, this labour sector mostly composed of migrant women still face vulnerability to abuses, exploitation, as well as trafficking. Informal work arrangement still prevails.

 

A new study on trafficking in domestic work brings visibility and new data on this under-researched and hidden phenomenon happening in Europe.

 

DemandAT – Domestic Work Case Study

Looking into trafficking in domestic work: the demand-side

 

(accompanying Policy Brief)

 

Notwithstanding significant demand for domestic workers in Europe, sub-standard conditions and informal work-arrangement persist. Despite various national contexts and policies, this labour sector mostly composed of migrant women still face vulnerability to abuses, exploitation, as well as trafficking. Informal work arrangement still prevails.

 

A new study on trafficking in domestic work brings visibility and new data on this under-researched and hidden phenomenon happening in Europe.

 

DemandAT – Domestic Work Case Study

Looking into trafficking in domestic work: the demand-side

 

(accompanying Policy Brief)

 

Notwithstanding significant demand for domestic workers in Europe, sub-standard conditions and informal work-arrangement persist. Despite various national contexts and policies, this labour sector mostly composed of migrant women still face vulnerability to abuses, exploitation, as well as trafficking. Informal work arrangement still prevails.

 

A new study on trafficking in domestic work brings visibility and new data on this under-researched and hidden phenomenon happening in Europe.

 

DemandAT – Domestic Work Case Study

Looking into trafficking in domestic work: the demand-side

 

(accompanying Policy Brief)

 

Notwithstanding significant demand for domestic workers in Europe, sub-standard conditions and informal work-arrangement persist. Despite various national contexts and policies, this labour sector mostly composed of migrant women still face vulnerability to abuses, exploitation, as well as trafficking. Informal work arrangement still prevails.

 

A new study on trafficking in domestic work brings visibility and new data on this under-researched and hidden phenomenon happening in Europe.

 

DemandAT – Domestic Work Case Study

Looking into trafficking in domestic work: the demand-side

 

(accompanying Policy Brief)

 

Notwithstanding significant demand for domestic workers in Europe, sub-standard conditions and informal work-arrangement persist. Despite various national contexts and policies, this labour sector mostly composed of migrant women still face vulnerability to abuses, exploitation, as well as trafficking. Informal work arrangement still prevails.

 

A new study on trafficking in domestic work brings visibility and new data on this under-researched and hidden phenomenon happening in Europe.

 

Demand-side approaches are seen as important building blocks in efforts to prevent trafficking, complementing measures addressing the vulnerability of trafficked persons. Whether such demand-side policies actually succeed in preventing trafficking is both debated and not sufficiently investigated. The sixth DemandAT Working Paper describes recurring types of regulatory tools addressing demand in twelve national contexts. The paper finds that there are few policies specifically addressing demand in the context of trafficking in human beings. More commonly, policies address broader issues associated with trafficking, and thus may serve to address, but are not limited to trafficking. Structurally, the promotion of demand-side approaches has the potential to mainstream anti-trafficking policies across various policy areas.

Domestic work is a sector of the economy particularly vulnerable to abusive and exploitative practices and is an area thought to be at high risk of hidden trafficking in human beings. Yet trafficking in domestic work remains poorly defined and the multiple drivers of demand in this context are difficult to differentiate.  This fifth DemandAT working paper aims to provide a framework for research that captures some of the specificities of work in a domestic setting. This will provide common ground for the series of country studies that are to follow.

What can we learn from other policy sectors about how best to regulate demand for illegal or undesirable goods/services? Drawing on insights from the areas of illegal drugs, tobacco and employment, Working Paper 4 uses a typology of regulatory approaches to identify types of smart regulation that might be most pertinent to measures addressing demand related to trafficking.

The authors note the challenges of transferring policy solutions and critique the rationalist presuppositions underpinning the literature on regulation. In particular, the paper shows how issue framing shapes policy responses. This, in turn, poses the question as to how issue definition and framing might act as a constraint on developing new approaches to address demand in THB.

Working Paper 3 examines how economic contributions can help clarify some of the terminology used in the DemandAT project. It sets out economic theories of ‘demand’, and contrasts these to common understandings of the concept of demand and prices as employed in debates on anti-trafficking, as well as understandings of the role of coercion. The paper suggests that the use of these terms has often been vague and inconsistent. The paper illustrates these problems by looking at three examples of the application of economics concepts in literature on THB. It concludes that what is needed most urgently is more context dependent data interpretation, rather than more data.

 

The 2000 UN Trafficking Protocol obliged states to discourage demand that fostered exploitation leading to trafficking. Fifteen years later, there is still no shared understanding of what demand means in the context of debates on trafficking in human beings (THB).

Working paper 2 charts the history of the use of the concepts “trafficking” and “demand” in the context of debates on trafficking since the 1860s. It shows that terminological confusion was and still is a constant feature of these debates. The paper argues that conceptual confusion hampers mutual understanding, prevents reasonable dispute and undermines the capacity to develop policy approaches which effectively provide protection from trafficking and exploitation.

This first DemandAT working paper by Norbert Cyrus and Dita Vogel seeks to clarify the concept of demand in the context of trafficking in human beings.  It approaches this task by historically analysing the emergence of the concept of demand within legal frameworks related to trafficking. The paper also discusses the understanding of demand as a concept in economics and whether and how this can be applied to trafficking in human beings. 

Working Paper 1 makes recommendations on terminology for the DemandAT project including:

  • the definition of demand as 'the willingness and ability to buy a particular commodity'

  • the definition of demand-side policies and measures as reserved for activities that seek to influence the demand for final commodities (such as consumer goods and services)

Addressing Demand in Anti-Trafficking Efforts and Policies, a 10-page summary of the DemandAT project

Trafficking in human beings covers various forms of coercion and exploitation of women, men and children. While responses to trafficking have traditionally focused on combating the criminal networks involved in trafficking or protecting the human rights of victims,European countries are increasingly exploring ways of influencing demand for the services or products involving the use of trafficked persons as well as the demand for trafficked persons as such. Demand-side measures have the potential to address some of the root causes of trafficking, and thus to contribute to its prevention. Analytically, a demand-side analysis has the potential to re-centre attention to those benefitting, and therefore bearing a degree of responsibility for, trafficking.